There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus and that these nutrients might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of this disease. The aim of present study was to compare the level of toxic elements, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in biological samples (whole blood, urine, and scalp hair) of patients having diabetes mellitus type-2 age ranged (31–60) (n = 238), with those of age matched non-diabetics (ND) as control subjects (n = 196), of both genders.
Results showed significantly higher mean values in diabetic patients (smokers and nonsmokers) compared to the test group. Blood and urine values were also higher in diabetics, but more so in diabetic patients who smoked.
Hassan Imran Afridi et al. Evaluation of status of toxic metals in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. Diabetes Research & Clin Practice, Vol80, 2, 2008, page 280-288